Former Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood is really, really into bipartisanship. So much so that the word appears more than 100 times in his new book, If that doesn't hammer home the point, just glance at the title: Seeking Bipartisanship.
The former Illinois Congressman, one of two Republicans in President Obama's first cabinet, is pretty blunt about his message. "We need more accommodating today. Instead, we have hyperpartisanship," he writes in the book, which was released last month. "The most obvious form shows up in the inability of Democrats and Republicans to negotiate, much less compromise. Both parties deserve blame."
This may not be the best time for an argument for two parties working together. Earlier this month, all four Republican candidates in the Fox Business Network undercard debate refused to answer a question about what Democrat in Congress they "admire."
Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal nearly sneered at the question. "We can waste our time," he said. "And I think this is why people were so frustrated with the last debate with these kinds of silly questions."
"Well, since we're not going to answer the question, let me just remind everybody, tomorrow is Veterans Day," answered former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee.
Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton dodged a similar question in a recent forum, refusing to name a Republican she'd consider as a vice president. And in the first Democratic debate, she named the entire Republican party when asked to name an enemy she's made.
By comparison, Obama appointed not one but two Republicans to his initial cabinet – LaHood and Defense Secretary Robert Gates. Former Nebraska Sen. Chuck Hagel, a Republican, joined the administration as Defense Secretary in 2013 and former Utah Gov. Jon Huntsman, another Republican, served as ambassador to China during Obama's first term.
Disappointment With Obama
But LaHood made headlines this week when the New York Times wrote an article about a central theme of the book: that the Obama Administration quickly abandoned the president's early goals of a bipartisan way of governing.
"Sometime in January , although I have no hard evidence of it, I believe Obama's inner circle signed off on [then-House Speaker Nancy Pelosi's] strategy for passing legislation in the house: ignore the Republicans; don't negotiate with them; Democrats have the votes to pass bills without their help," LaHood writes.
LaHood devotes much of his attention to the nearly $800 billion federal stimulus package passed in 2009. He calls the administration's Republican outreach "tepid and ineffective."
Recalling a meeting Obama held with the House Republican caucus ahead of the stimulus vote, LaHood writes,"It was clear to me that the folks in the room were not in a mood to respond to his appeal. They made it clear that Democrats had shut them out"
"They could have said, hey, we're going after some Republicans," LaHood lamented to PBS's Judy Woodruff in a recent interview. "We're going to invite some Republicans down here for dinner and say, 'what do you need for us to get this bill passed? What does it take?"
The Green Lantern To The Rescue?
This line of thinking frustrates Dartmouth political scientist Brendan Nyhan, who has written extensively about what he calls "a totemic obsession" that many Washington leaders have with the idea of bipartisanship.
Nyhan even has a theory for the wine-and-dine bipartisan outreach approach that LaHood argues for: The Green Lantern Theory of the Presidency.
"The idea that if the president only tried hard enough, he can get whatever it is he wants. It's based on the powers of a comic book hero," Nyhan explains. "If he only tried harder, if he only reached out more, if he only did this, that, or the other thing to appeal to Republicans, they would eventually fall at his feet and agree to his requests. There's just very little evidence to suggest that's the case."
Especially on a measure like the 2009 stimulus, a massive debt-funded government spending initiative that went against many core Republican principles.
"I don't think it's plausible that Republicans would vote against their partisan interests and the ideological beliefs of their party just because President Obama played golf with them," says Nyhan. "In a certain sense it's quite insulting to those legislators, as sophisticated people with strong views about how American politics should work."
A spokesperson for LaHood said he was traveling and unavailable to talk.
LaHood's book faults Republicans, as well, for Washington, D.C.'s hyperpartisan atmosphere. Addressing the Tea Party, he writes, "I have no patience for these hard-edged partisans. I detest their Congress."
When A Handshake Is A Political Liability
Of all the candidates running for president this year, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie probably spends the most time talking about reaching across the aisle. He often notes that as a Republican governing a deep blue state, he has to cut constant deals – and make frequent use of his veto pen - to pass a state budget and get other measures passed.
But that isn't a positive to many Republican primary voters. At a recent Iowa campaign event, an audience member asked Christie about the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy in 2012. "I was wondering when Obama came to help you, if you feel like you said too much and possibly helped Obama win the presidency. A lot of us feel that way," she asked.
"I shook his hand and I showed him respect," Christie responded. "And I'll tell you this. I don't apologize one minute for anything I did. Because you know who I stood up for? I stood up for the people of New Jersey."
"You touched him," is how Daily Show host Trevor Noah summed up Christie and Obama's post-Sandy meeting during a recent interview. When physical contact with a member of a opposite party is considered an election liability, that's perhaps a sign that bipartisanship is at an all-time low.
Nyhan argues cross-party support for major bills and initiatives has always been the exception, not the rule, in American politics, and that the vision put forward by people like LaHood is a pipe dream.
"It's very difficult to work across party lines, because we have strongly divided parties in this country. And that's not likely to change, and it's bizarre to me that people expect it to whose job it is to understand how politics works," he says.
LaHood seems unconvinced. "Compromise is not a bad word," he told Woodruff. "It's the way our system works. It's the way we move the country forward."
LINDA WERTHEIMER, HOST:
It's the topic many dread at the Thanksgiving table, politics. It can be so divisive, which leads many to wonder why can't our politicians compromise more often. NPR's Scott Detrow went in search of an answer.
SCOTT DETROW, BYLINE: The Syrian refugee crisis feels like just the latest high-profile news event where Republicans and Democrats seem to be living in parallel universes.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
JAY INSLEE: And the country has always been a place of refuge from those who were persecuted.
(SOUNDBITE OF RADIO SHOW, "THE HUGH HEWITT SHOW")
CHRIS CHRISTIE: And I don't think orphans under 5 are being, you know, should be admitted into the United States at this point.
DETROW: That was Washington Gov. Jay Inslee speaking on NPR and New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie on Hugh Hewitt's radio show. Of the 30 governors who voiced concerns about letting Syrian refugees into their states, all but one was Republican. As for the presidential campaign, well, here's a recent Republican presidential debate.
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UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: Who in Congress do you most admire on the Democratic side? I need one name from each of you. Let's start with Gov. Jindal.
BOBBY JINDAL: Well, like, we can waste our time and...
DETROW: None of the four candidates on stage answered the question. Hillary Clinton also punted on a similar question recently. All of this really bothers Ray LaHood, a longtime Republican congressman from Illinois who also served in President Obama's cabinet. LaHood recently wrote a book called, "Seeking Bipartisanship." He told public television station WTVP that Obama didn't do enough to reach across the aisle.
RAY LAHOOD: They could've said, hey, we're going after some Republicans. We're going to invite some Republicans down here for dinner and see what do you need for us to get this bill passed? What does it take?
BRENDAN NYHAN: I find people's bafflement about the failures of bipartisanship baffling.
DETROW: That's Dartmouth political scientist Brendan Nyhan. He argues that competition between two political parties with two very different agendas is how American democracy works. Nyhan has a name for the wine-and-dine outreach approach that LaHood and so many others suggest as a fix for partisanship. He calls it the green lantern theory of the presidency.
NYHAN: Which is the idea that if the president only tried hard enough, he could get whatever it is he wants. It's based on the powers of a comic book hero.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: In brightest day.
UNIDENTIFIED GROUP: In blackest night, no evil shall escape my sight.
NYHAN: If he only tried harder, if he only reached out more, they would eventually fall at his feet and agree to his request. There's just very little evidence to suggest that's the case.
DETROW: But while parties have traditionally disagreed, the tone has shifted. A recent Pew study found that among partisan liberals and conservatives, very unfavorable views of the other side have more than doubled over the last 20 years. On top of that, says senior researcher Jocelyn Kiley...
JOCELYN KILEY: They're more likely to give money. They're more likely to participate in the political system in a number of different ways.
DETROW: And these same people, the ones with political clout, have also become much less likely to agree with anything the other party has to say. That means candidates are more often rewarded for sticking to their guns and punished when they don't. New Jersey's Chris Christie appeared alongside Obama after Hurricane Sandy struck his state in the weeks before the 2012 election. Three years after the storm, Christie is still defending that appearance.
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CHRISTIE: I shook his hand, and I showed him respect.
DETROW: So when that question of why politicians can't get along comes up at the Thanksgiving table, remind your family. These days, a Republican can't even shake a Democrat's hand during a major crisis without it becoming controversial. Scott Detrow, NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.