Project Milwaukee: Segregation Matters

For years, the Milwaukee metro area has had a reputation as one of the most segregated in the United States.

How did this complex problem come about, and why does it endure? How does it contribute to persistent poverty? Are there ways to break through the boundaries?

WUWM seeks answers to those questions in our Project Milwaukee: Segregation Matters series.

Help shape this series. What questions do you have about segregation? Submit your responses below.

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Voces de la Frontera / Flickr

There's a common misconception that many, or most, Latinos in Milwaukee are actually immigrants; however, Hispanic people have been living in the area since the 1920s.

There were relatively few Latinos in our community for decades. "The big numbers start in the late '70s and '80s and '90s is really when the large influx of Latinos come to Milwaukee," says Enrique Figueroa, the former longtime director of the Roberto Hernandez Center and an associate professor at UW-Milwaukee.

JFXie, flickr

Several reasons emerge as to why people in metro Milwaukee live in either segregated or integrated neighborhoods in what is the most racially segregated metro area in the country. Sometimes people have a choice, other times they do not. And one statistic sets this area apart from all others, according to UWM researcher Marc Levine - the rate of affluent African-Americans opting to live in neighborhoods saturated with poverty.

UWM Libraries American Geographical Society Library

“Segregation is not an accident,” according to Reggie Jackson, the head griot for American’s Black Holocaust Museum.

“There’s this idea that people self-segregate, but the reality is that there’s never really been self-segregation in Milwaukee,” Jackson says. “The segregation that we have, in terms of people of color, was created by a variety of different in institutions and individuals.”

DUSTIN A. CABLE, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, WELDON COOPER CENTER FOR PUBLIC SERVICE, REFERENCE DATA BY STAMEN DESIGN

The assertion that Milwaukee is currently one of - if not the most segregated metro area in the United States is probably deserved but with some qualifications, according to UW-Milwaukee researcher Marc Levine.

An extraordinary number of blacks live in the city as opposed to in Milwaukee suburbs, and in the city itself - while it is diverse, African-Americans, whites and Latinos tend to live in neighborhoods with little diversity.

Chris Arnade

During the early to mid-1900s, the Great Migration brought millions of African-Americans from rural, southern towns to cities like Chicago, Detroit, and of course, Milwaukee.

To this day, many older, black Milwaukeeans have roots in the South. Many moved here as teens and young adults, looking for work in an industrial city that overflowed with jobs at the time.

Reggie Jackson -- America's Black Holocaust Museum

Milwaukee is one of the most segregated metro areas in America, according to the latest census figures. 90 percent of African-American households in the region live in Milwaukee. The numbers also point to huge economic disparities smothering African-Americans who live in the central city.

The Milwaukee metro area has a reputation as one of the most segregated in the United States. A number of studies support that reputation. Yet what's talked about less are the reasons the community is so divided, and the consequences.

Kenishirotie, flickr

Studies show that the metropolitan Milwaukee area is the most segregated in the country. While the city of Milwaukee is majority minority, the surrounding suburban areas are largely white, and some groups contend that it’s this way by design. Back in 2011, The Metropolitan Milwaukee Fair Housing Council filed a complaint against Waukesha County, alleging housing discrimination on the basis of race.

Sixty-three years after the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, many schools across the country either remain segregated or have re-segregated.

Journalist Nikole Hannah-Jones tells Fresh Air's Terry Gross that when it comes to school segregation, separate is never truly equal.

In the aftermath of the Great Depression, the U.S. government set out to evaluate the riskiness of mortgages — and left behind a stunning portrait of the racism and discrimination that has shaped American housing policy.

Now a new digital tool makes it easier than ever to see that history in high-resolution.

Copyright 2018 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

DAVID GREENE, HOST:

Scenes of West Baltimore's troubled neighborhoods do raise natural questions. One is why they seem heavily segregated generations after legal segregation ended.

STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:

Dustin A. Cable, University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service, Reference Data by Stamen Design

For all the good that Milwaukee has going for it, the city continues to deal with the reality that it is the most segregated city in the country.

There's a new approach to deal with racial segregation in Milwaukee - a contest.

Andrew Burton, Getty Images

We have discussed some of the myriad causes of racial discrimination.  And some have spoken about what they see as racially discriminatory practices at several levels.  While some lump that concept in under the umbrella term, “racism,” our first guest this morning would urge you to understand the distinction between the two concepts.

Doctor Imani Perry is professor at Princeton University’s Center for African-American Studies – she was one of Marquette University’s three Metcalfe Chairs this semester and talked about the persistence of racial inequality last week in Milwaukee.

DUSTIN A. CABLE, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, WELDON COOPER CENTER FOR PUBLIC SERVICE, REFERENCE DATA BY STAMEN DESIGN

A 2013 ranking reaffirms Milwaukee's place as the overall most segregated metropolitan area in the United States. The Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis metropolitan statistical area also ranked high in segregation between whites and blacks.

>> This story is from 2013. For WUWM's complete 2017 series on segregation, visit Project Milwaukee: Segregation Matters.

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